Ken Ward's Health and Nutrition Pages

List of Vitamins

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Vitamin Other Names  
A Carotene, retinol Needed to protect the linings of the lungs, stomach, intestines, urinary tract and other organs. Deficiency produces night blindness.
  Beta-carotene Vegetable substance that the body can convert to Vitamin A. It has an anti-cancer effect, and is not toxic in any way ... unlike vitamin A.
B1 Thiamine Helps to process proteins, fats and carbohydrates
B2 Riboflavin Involved in processing amino acids and fats, activating vitamin B6 and folic acid, and helps convert carbohydrates into ATP, an energy rich molecule which transports energy from food reactions.
B3 Nicotinic Acid, Niacin Helps the body release energy from carbohydrates. It’s needed to form fat from carbohydrates and to process alcohol. The niacin form of vitamin B3 also regulates cholesterol.
B5 Calcium Pantothenate, Pantothenic acid Involved in the Kreb’s cycle of energy production and is needed to make the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Essential in releasing energy from fats. Synthesis of cholesterol (needed for vitamin D and hormone synthesis) activates the adrenal glands. Pantethine—a variation of pantothenic acid—has been reported to lower blood levels of cholesterol and triglycerides.
B6 Pyridoxine Vitamin B6 involved with many amino acids and is also needed to make serotonin, melatonin, and dopamine, and several neurotransmitters


  A member of the B-complex vitamins that emulsifies fats, including cholesterol. Works with inositol.
Inositol   Like choline, inositol helps fat metabolism. Involved in the formation of cell membranes. It affects nerve transmission and helps in transporting fats within the body.


Coenzyme R, Vitamin H A coenzyme in metabolism of protein, fats, and carbohydrates
B9 Folic Acid, Folacin Folic acid is needed for DNA synthesis. DNA allows cells—including cells in the foetus when a woman is pregnant—to replicate normally.


Para-aminobenzoic acid Helps to form folic acid and in the utilization of protein.
B12 Cobalamin, Cyanocobalamin Vitamin B12 is needed for normal nerve cell activity, DNA replication, and production of the mood-affecting substance called SAM (S-adenosyl methionine). Vitamin B12 works with folic acid to control homocysteine levels. Excessive homocysteine, which is an amino acid (protein building block), increases the risk of heart disease and perhaps osteoporosis.
B13 Orotic Acid Metabolizes folic acid and vitamin B12
B15 Pangamic Acid An antioxidant with similar effects to vitamin E.
B17 Laetrile Made from apricot stones (or pits), this vitamin is the one that is not present in Brewer's yeast.
C Ascorbic Acid Also water-soluble, vitamin C is the opposite of vitamin B12 in that it is found in almost all plant foods but not in meat. It is a powerful antioxidant and is required for the formation of collagen; i.e., in wound healing.
P C-complex, citrus bioflavonoid, rutin, hesperidin Works with vitamin C. Also increases capillary strength.
D Calciforol Vitamin D is fat-soluble, and cholecalciferol is the major active substance. Its main function is to stimulate the absorption of calcium.
E Tocopherol An antioxidant that protects cell membranes and other fat-soluble parts of the body.
K Menadione Menadione is involved in the processes of coagulation.


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