Evolution of matter
'2003 Vadim Smolyanov and Valentina Smolyanova
Translated from Russian. We shall be glad to receive your remarks on stylistics, grammar, and content.
Chapter I. Evolution of lifeless matter
We more likely fortunately than unfortunately are in the world where there is a time-space and a matter where a duality, variety and constant changes exist. But how to manage to describe World or its any phenomenon if you being in it?
The most interesting phenomenon known to a science is the Great explosion, a birth of the universe which was about 15-20 billion years ago. What had become the reason of it? The condition of the universe before the birth cannot be transferred by words means. It is follows of the known ancient texts concerning creation and essence of our world (the Bible, Vedic and Dao). This condition is described as containing All and Nothing simultaneously. Ancient texts force us to disconnect thinking logic and to trust in supersensual perception. But a problem, we have no supersensual perception. So we shall try to create model of development of a matter with the help of the empirical data, existing theories and logic, but we shall take position of ancient doctrines as the entry condition: "All in Nothing, Nothing in All". Is lawful to conclude on it basis that the explosion reason was occurrence of the Unity (point). Occurrence of the Unity created the occurrence of the Variety potential (infinity). Unity and Variety as the total difference has made explosion. The aspiration from Unity to Variety has automatically given birth to opposite aspiration from Variety to Unity. These two aspirations have created a matter, space-time, all processes and the phenomena around of us and inside us. Difference of Unity and Variety, a point and infinity has given birth to space-time. Internal aspiration of superelementary particles to Unity and an external pulse to Variety have forced its to space overcoming and to participating in irreversible processes of uniting and disconnecting, that has given birth to time-line (an one-orientation from the past to the future) and a matter. After the era of Great explosion which last very short time interval was finished an era of Great association was begun with duration no more than t=10 in degree -35s. During this period there was a first phase transition of a matter (phase transition is a change of a condition of a matter, for example, transformation of water into steam). Superelementary particles and superelementary antiparticles have appeared in this era. Here there was a global copying of Unity and Variety on internal elements of system as difference between of superelementary particles and superelementary antiparticles and occurrence of gravitation. There were first interactions and first particles focused on interactions (gluons). The following period is marked by the next phase transition of matter. It is the period of androns formation (protons, neutrons, electrons, etc.). Nuclear forces are the basic interaction at this stage which were allocated from gravitation and have found a duality, ability to draw or push away. There were first microsystems where interactions between a few quarks form large variety of elementary particles. It is a first level of complexity known to a science. The aspiration to association at the bottom level is appeared in variety at the top level. All evolution of a matter proceeded by this principle.
Chapter II. Evolution of alive matter
The following significant period of evolution (about 3-4 billion years ago) was occurrence of alive matter which incorporates variety of a lifeless matter. At the first sight, an organism and mentality of animals continued to evolve by means of lifeless matter principles from simple to complex with inherent in all alive aspiration to reproduction and self-preservation. Taxis (knacks of spatial orientation aside favorable or from adverse conditions of environment, for example, turn of plants according to daily movement of the sun or change of elementary organisms movement depending on a chemical compound of environment) of monocelled developed in conditional and unconditioned reflexes (response of an organism to irritation) of multicellular, reflexes of the elementary were transformed to complex instincts (the genetic incorporated programme of actions is started at concrete external conditions) of insects. And, at last, at the supreme animals we notice abilities to training and the decision of simple tasks, for example use of boxes by the monkey for bananas gotten. The basic direction of mentality evolution and of organism evolution is considered increase of ability to fast adaptation at fast environment changes. Because of it is considered mammals are more advanced than, for example, insects. I'd like to not agree with this thesis. In a counterbalance of mammal ability to training and abilities of separate bodies to change of the functions without genetic changes at insects is an opportunity under adverse conditions to be long time in an embryon or to be exposed to a genetic mutation due to fast alternation of generations. We can mark from it that all animals and all flora is perfect essences and evolution completeness organisms. We can observe completeness in monocelled colonies, in behaviour of plenty bees or supreme animals. The biosphere of our planet during evolution has gotten a homeostasis (the medical term designating balanced harmony of an organism). We shall designate two principles of biosphere homeostasis. The first principle is a principle of "narrow specialisation". Almost all kinds of an animal and flora specialise on rather narrow segment of food or inhabitancy, for example, being divided on herbivores and carnivorous. With the help of it steadily-renewable ecological circuits are built. The second principle is "return proportionality between adaptability and ability to breeding". This principle does not allow to breed, for example, to large predators and to destroy all of herbivores. There is one more principle '"the god does not give horns for the butting cow". The nature does not give superadvantage in bodies (powerful canines, claws or horns) and abilities (speed of movement, etc.). That can break a homeostasis (this principle can be related to the first because additional abilities expand "specialisation"). The evolution shaped these principles during billions years. So biosphere as against a lifeless matter includes the variety and forms unity through a homeostasis. The alive matter shows integrity at the top level uniting variety of the bottom level of system. Or otherwise the aspiration to variety at the bottom level is appeared in unity at the top level.
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